Ethnizenship: Nationality, Citizenship and Ethno-cultural Belonging
Many states differentiate between categories of citizens and foreigners by granting certain foreigners preferential admission to citizenship and by restricting citizenship rights and privileges to certain citizens. This project analysed citizenship laws of European countries in order to identify and assess legal rules and practices that differentiate among citizens and foreigners on ethno-nationalist ground.
It challenged common arguments about the liberalisation and de-ethnicisation of contemporary citizenship regimes by showing that ethno-national views continue to inform various rules of citizenship in Europe. Whereas rules of preferential acquisition of citizenship that make explicit reference to ethnicity constitute the most evident case of ethno-national rules of citizenship, subtler distinctions, and contextual applications of other rules of citizenship, such as the unconditional application of ius sanguinis abroad and differentiated privileges regarding admission to, exercise of, loss and reacquisition of citizenship, could also be interpreted as driven by or reinforcing ethno-national conceptions about state membership.